Prohibited List

The list of prohibited substances and methods (known as the “Prohibited List”) is usually published on an annual basis by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The updated list enters into force on January 1 of the new year. Every year, Swiss Sport Integrity then publishes the Prohibited List in German and French.

It is the responsibility of each and every athlete to check regularly that the substances and methods they use are not prohibited in sport. For everyday use, we recommend the Medical Inquiry Service Global DRO.

Medical Inquiry Service Global DRO

2024 Prohibited List

New from 2024

The 2024 Prohibited List enters into force on 1 January 2024 and replaces all previous lists.

The WADA has made several modifications to the Prohibited List 2024 which have an impact on the doping status of various medications. The most important update is, that the substance tramadol (a strong painkiller), will be prohibited in-competition for all sports from 1 January 2024.

Based on the therapeutic use of tramadol, the washout period is established at 24 hours. The washout period refers to the time from the last administered dose to the time of the start of the In-Competition period (i.e., beginning at 11:59 p.m. on the day before a Competition).

Athletes who are currently being treated with tramadol should timely seek permitted alternative treatment. If there is no permitted alternative treatment possible, the TUE regulations must be observed.

An exhaustive list of all modifications is provided by the WADA.

Criteria for Prohibited Substances and Methods

The substances and methods that are included in the Prohibited List are decided by the WADA’s List Expert Group, which is made up of international specialists. As part of this process, substances and methods are assessed according to three criteria: Whether they have the potential to improve performance, whether they represent an actual or potential health risk, and whether or not they run counter to the spirit of sport. Substances or methods shall also be prohibited if they mask the use of prohibited substances or methods.

Prohibited Substances and Methods

The Prohibited List organizes prohibited substances into different classes:

Substances and Methods Prohibited at All Times (In and Out of Competition)

  • S0 Non-approved substances
  • S1 Anabolic agents
  • S2 Peptide hormones, growth factors, related substances, and mimetics
  • S3 Beta-2 agonists
  • S4 Hormone and metabolic modulators
  • S5 Diuretics and other masking agents
  • M1 Manipulation of blood and blood components
  • M2 Chemical and physical manipulation
  • M3 Gene and cell doping

Substances and Methods Prohibited in-Competition

  • S6 Stimulants
  • S7 Narcotics
  • S8 Cannabinoids
  • S9 Glucocorticoids

Substances Prohibited in Particular Sports

  • P1 Beta-blockers

More detailed information and knowledge (about substances and methods) can be gained from the Mobile Lesson «Substances and Methods» provided by Swiss Sport Integrity.

Specified and Non-Specified substances and methods

All prohibited substances and methods are divided into specific and non-specific substances or methods. In the event of violations of the anti-doping provisions, the sentence will generally be higher if non-specific substances or methods have been used. Prohibited substances in the following classes are deemed to be non-specific:

  • S1 Anabolic agents
  • S2 Peptide hormones, growth factors, related substances, and mimetics
  • S4.3 Agents preventing activin receptor IIB activation (i. e. myostatin inhibitor)
  • S4.4 Metabolic modulators
  • S6.a Non-specific stimulants

Prohibited methods in the following classes are deemed to be non-specific:

  • M1 Manipulation of blood and blood components
  • M2.1 Sample Manipulation
  • M3 Gene and cell doping

Substances of Abuse

Some prohibited substances are identified as substances of abuse because they are frequently abused in society outside of the context of sport. Therefore, the use or possession of substances named above may be subject to less stringent sanctions. This applies only if the substances were used outside of competitions and not for the purposes of enhancing performance.

The following are designated substances of abuse: cocaine, diamorphine (heroin), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA/”ecstasy”), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Provisions Issued by International Sports Federations

In addition to the anti-doping provisions that apply worldwide, athletes must abide by the rules issued by their International Sports Federations. Certain substances and methods are additionally prohibited in certain sports, even though they do not appear on the Prohibited List.


  • Needle Policy: Certain International Sports Federations and the International Olympic Committee regulate the use of any injections during and in the time surrounding their competitions.